Mechanical Properties of Electrophoretically Deposited 45S5 Bioglass-Graphene Oxide Composite Coatings

Document Type : Original Research Article


Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran


Bioglass-graphene oxide composites can be served as an appropriate alternative for bone implant applications due to its specific mechanical properties. In this study, the 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) - graphene oxide (GO) composite containing 2wt% GO was deposited on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrate via the electrophoretic deposition process (EDP). The synthesized GO was incorporated into BG coating to improve the mechanical properties. The phase, structural agents, microstructure, and composition were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The micro scratch test with a progressive load was applied to study the adhesion and fracture toughness of coatings based on a linear elastic fracture mechanics model. micro scratch results showed the highest critical distances of crack initiation and delamination, critical contact pressures (Pc1 and Pc2= 4.80 and 5.37GPa, respectively), and fracture toughness (KIC= 0.885 MPa.m1/2) for BG-GO composite coatings.


Main Subjects

1.     Hosseini, S., Farnoush, H., “Characterization and in Vitro Bioactivity of Electrophoretically Deposited Mn-Modified Bioglass-Alginate Nanostructured Composite Coatings”, Materials Research Express, Vol. 6, No. 2, (2018), 025404.
2.     Farnoush, H., Mohandesi, J. A., Fatmehsari, D. H., “Effect of Particle Size on the Electrophoretic Deposition of Hydroxyapatite Coatings: A Kinetic Study Based on a Statistical Analysis”, International Journal of  Applied Ceramic Technology, Vol. 10, No. 1, (2013), 87-96.
3.     Farnoush, H., Sadeghi, A., Abdi Bastami, A., Moztarzadeh, F., Aghazadeh Mohandesi, J., “An Innovative Fabrication of Nano-HA Coatings on Ti-CaP Nanocomposite Layer Using a Combination of Friction Stir Processing and Electrophoretic Deposition”, Ceramics International, Vol. 39,  No. 2, (2013), 1477-1483.
4.     Farnoush, H., Abdi Bastami, A., Sadeghi, A., Aghazadeh Mohandesi, J., Moztarzadeh, F., “Tribological and Corrosion Behavior of Friction Stir Processed Ti-CaP Nanocomposites in Simulated Body Fluid Solution”, Journal of Mechanical Behavior of Biomededical Materials, Vol. 20, (2013), 90-97.
5.     Farnoush, H., Muhaffel, F., Cimenoglu, H., “Fabrication and Characterization of Nano-HA-45S5 Bioglass Composite Coatings on Calcium-Phosphate Containing Micro-Arc Oxidized CP-Ti Substrates”,  Applied Surface Science, Vol. 324, (2015), 765-774.
6.     Boccaccini, A. R., Keim, S., Ma, R., Li, Y., Zhitomirsky, I., Boccaccini, A. R., Keim, S., Ma, R., Li, Y., Zhitomirsky, I., “Electrophoretic Deposition of Biomaterials Electrophoretic Deposition of Biomaterials”, Journal of the Royal Society Interface, Vol. 7, (2010), S581–S613.
7.     Türk, M., Deliormanli, A. M., “Graphene-Containing PCL- Coated Porous 13-93B3 Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration”, Materials Research Express, Vol. 5, No. 4, (2018),  45406.
8.     Nguyen, B. H., Nguyen, V. H., “Promising Applications of Graphene and Graphene-Based Nanostructures”, Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Vol. 7, No. 2, (2016), 23002.
9.     Yadav, N., Lochab, B., “A Comparative Study of Graphene Oxide: Hummers, Intermediate and Improved Method”, FlatChem, Vol. 13,  (2019),  40–49.
10.   Farnoush, H., Aghazadeh Mohandesi, J., Çimeno─člu, H., “Micro-Scratch and Corrosion Behavior of Functionally Graded HA-TiO2 Nanostructured Composite Coatings Fabricated by Electrophoretic Deposition”, Journal of Mechanical Behavior of Biomededical Materials, Vol. 46, (2015), 31-40.
11.   Sun, L., Fugetsu, B., “Mass Production of Graphene Oxide from Expanded Graphite”, Materials Letters, Vol. 109, (2013), 207–210.
12.   Dao, T. D., Jeong, H. M., “Graphene Prepared by Thermal Reduction–exfoliation of Graphite Oxide: Effect of Raw Graphite Particle Size on the Properties of Graphite Oxide and Graphene”, Materials Research Bulletin, Vol. 70, (2015), 651–657.
13.   Chen, J., Yao, B., Li, C., Shi, G., “An Improved Hummers Method for Eco-Friendly Synthesis of Graphene Oxide”, Carbon, Vol. 64, (2013), 225–229.
14.   Faure, J., Drevet, R., Lemelle, A., Ben Jaber, N., Tara, A., El Btaouri, H., Benhayoune, H., “A New Sol-Gel Synthesis of 45S5 Bioactive Glass Using an Organic Acid as Catalyst,” Materials Science and Engineering C, Vol. 47, (2015), 407–412.
15.   Farnoush, H., Rezaei, Z., “Effect of Suspension Stability on Bonding Strength and Electrochemical Behavior of Electrophoretically Deposited HA-YSZ Nanostructured Composite Coatings”, Ceramics International, Vol. 43, (2016), 11885-11897.
16.   Zhang, L., Liu, W., Yue, C., Zhang, T., Li, P., Xing, Z., Chen, Y., “A Tough Graphene Nanosheet/hydroxyapatite Composite with Improved in Vitro Biocompatibility”, Carbon, Vol. 61, (2013), 105–115.
17.   Akono, A.-T., Randall, N. X., and Ulm, F.-J., “Experimental Determination of the Fracture Toughness via Microscratch Tests: Application to Polymers, Ceramics, and Metals”, Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 27, No 2, (2012),  485–493.
18.   Yazdanpanah, A., Kamalian, R., Moztarzadeh, F., Mozafari, M., Ravarian, R., Tayebi, L., “Enhancement of Fracture Toughness in Bioactive Glass-Based Nanocomposites with Nanocrystalline Forsterite as Advanced Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications”, Ceramics International,Vol. 38, No 6, (2012), 5007–5014.
19.   Li, D., Yang, F., Nychka, J., “Indentation-Induced Residual Stresses in 45S5 Bioglass and the Stress Effect on the Material Dissolution”, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, Vol. 75, No 17, (2008), 4898–4908.
20.   Gao, F., Xu, C., Hu, H., Wang, Q., Gao, Y., Chen, H., Guo, Q., Chen, D., Eder, D., “Biomimetic Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite/graphene Oxide Hybrid Coating on Mg Alloy with Enhanced Corrosion Resistance”, Materials Letters, Vol. 138, (2015), 25–28.
21.   Li, H., Khor, K. A., Cheang, P., “Titanium Dioxide Reinforced Hydroxyapatite Coatings Deposited by High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) Spray”, Biomaterials, Vol. 23, No 1, (2002), 85–91.