Dry and Wet Wear Characteristic of TiO2 Thin Film Prepared by Magnetic Sputtering in Ringer Solution

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University Karaj, Alborz, Iran

2 Materials and Energy Research Center, Meshkindasht, Alborz, Iran


In this research, a thin film of TiO2 was applied on AZ91D using the method of magnetic sputtering. Microstructure investigations were conducted using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Wear resistance for the coating was investigated using the pin on the disk in the form of dry and in the Ringer's solution. the worn surface of the samples was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) asfter this test. Meanwhile, the level of hardness and flatness of the surface after coating was investigated using Vickers microhardness tester and roughness tester. Results indicated that the coating was formed uniformly and had the globular morphology and very good coherence with the thickness of 90nm, which is seemingly formed at the interface of the coating and substrate of the MgTi2O5 and Mg2TiO4 spinels. The roughness of the surface decreased as much as 20% by applying the coating. Applying the coating decreased the coefficient of friction and increased wear resistance in both of the environments. Following the application a thin film of TiO2, wear mechanism was transferred from severe abrasive to mild abrasive in the dry environment and cleavage crater in the Ringer's solution.


Main Subjects


    1. Wang, L., Zhang, B. P., Shinohara, T., “Corrosion behavior of AZ91 magnesium alloy in dilute NaCl solutions”, Materials and Design, Vol. 31, (2010), 857–863.
    2. Zhu, L., Li, W., Shan, D., “Effects of low temperature thermal treatment on zinc and/or tin plated coatings of AZ91D magnesium alloy”, Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 201, (2006), 2768–2775.
    3. Wang, L., Zhang , B. P., Shinohara, T., “Corrosion behavior of AZ91 magnesium alloy in dilute NaCl solutions”, Materials and Design, Vol. 31, (2010), 857–863.
    4. Virtanen, S., “Biodegradable Mg and Mg alloys: Corrosion and biocompatibility”, Materials Science and Engineering: B, Vol. 176, No. 20, (2011), 1600-1608.
    5. Atrens, A., Liu, L., Zainal, N. I., “Corrosion mechanism applicable to biodegradable magnesium implants”, Materials Science and Engineering: B, Vol. 176, No. 20, (2011), 1609-1636.
    6. Chen, S. C., Kuo, T. Y. Y., Lin, C., Lin, H. C., “Electrical and optical properties of nio composite films by radio frequency magnetron sputtering”, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Vol. 12, (2012), 1196-1200.
    7. Sasi, B., Gopchandran. K. G., “Preparation and characterization of nanostructured NiO thin films by reactive-pulsed laser ablation technique”, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 91, )2007(, 1505-1509.
    8. Jiang, D. Y., Qin, J. M., Wang, X., Gao, S. Gao, Q. .C., Liang, J., Zhao, X., “Optical properties of NiO thin films fabricated by electron beam evaporation”, Vacuum, Vol. 86, (2012), 1083-1086.
    9. Goux, L., Polspoel, W., Lisoni, J. G., Chen, B., “switching characteristics and scalability in NiO layers made by thermaloxidation of Ni”, The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 157,  (2010), G187-G192.
    10. Yeh, W. C., Matsumura, M., “Chemical vapor deposition of nickel oxide films from bis-p-cyclopentadienyl-nickel”, Japan Journal of Apply Physic, Vol. 36, )1997,( 6884-5887.
    11. Alagiri, M., Ponnusamy, S., Muthamizhchelvan, C., “Synthesis and characterization of NiO nanoparticles by sol-gel method”, Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Vol. 23, (2012), 728-732.
    12. White, L., Youngmi, K., Yeoheung, Y., Jagannathan, S., “TiO2 Deposition on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Using Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation”, Nanomaterials, Vol. 1, (2013), 8 -14
    13. Hu, J., Shaokang, G., Zhang, C., Ren, C., Wen, C., Zhaoqin, P., “Corrosion protection of AZ31 magnesium alloy by a TiO2 coating prepared by LPD method”, Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 203, No. 14,   (2009), 2017-2020.
    14. Yang, K., Li, J., Wang, Q. Y., Li, Z., Jiang, Y., Bao, Y., “Effect of laser remelting on microstructure and wear resistance of plasma sprayed Al2O3-40%TiO2 coating”, Wear, Vol. 426, (2019), 314-318.
    15. Kahraman, A. D., Yolcu, C., Kahraman, F., “Effect of the loads on the wear resistance of the Cr2O3-TiO2 coated AA 6082 alloy under unlubricated conditions”, Materials Research Express,Vol. 6, No. 8, (2019).
    16. Tao, T., Bae, I. T., Woodruff, K. B., Sauer, K., Cho, J., “Hydrothermally-grown nanostructured anatase TiO2 coatings tailored for photocatalytic and antibacterial properties”, Ceramics International,Vol. 45, No. 71, (2019),23216-23224.
    17. ASTM D2651-01, “Standard Guide for Preparation of Metal Surfaces for Adhesive Bonding”, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, (2001).
    18. Rahgozar, M., “Optimizing the tribological Properties of Ni-B electroless eoatings by changing  the chemical composition of the bath” IRAN UNIVERSITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, MSc, (2014).
    19. Seyadraoufi, S. Z., “Synthesize and Study of Mechanical and Biocompatibility Properties of Biodegradable Mg-Zn Scaffolds Coated with nano-HAP” IRAN UNIVERSITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, PHD, (2014).
    20. Li, N., Zheng, Y., “Novel Magnesium Alloys Developed for Biomedical Application: A Review”, Materials Science Technology, Vol. 29, No. 6, (2013), 489-502.
    21. Zhuang, H., Han, Y., Feng, A., “Preparation, mechanical properties and in vitro biodegradation of porousmagnesium scaffolds”, Materials Science and Engineering C, Vol. 28, (2008), 1462–1466.
    22. Wang, H. X., Guan, S. K., Wang, X., Ren, C. X., Wang, L. G., “In vitro degradation and mechanical integrity of Mg–Zn–Ca alloy coated with Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite by the pulse electrodeposition process”, Acta Biomaterialia, Vol. 6, (2010), 1743–1748.
    23. Stiager, M. B., Piteak, A. M., “Magnesium and it’s alloys a orthopedic biomaterials”, Biomaterials, Vol. 27, (2007), 1728-1734.
Volume 5, Issue 4 - Serial Number 18
December 2019
Pages 30-37
  • Receive Date: 31 October 2019
  • Revise Date: 15 December 2019
  • Accept Date: 31 December 2019
  • First Publish Date: 31 December 2019