Electrodeposited Hydroxyapatite/Graphene Oxide/Zirconia Oxide Composite Coatings: Characterization and Antibacterial Activity

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Advanced Materials Research Center, Materials Engineering Department, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran


The current study aimed to characterize the hydroxyapatite, zirconia, and graphene oxide nanocomposite coatings on titanium substrate by the use of electrophoretic deposition. In the first stage, besides the characterization of the created composite coating, the thickness and uniformity of the created coating were evaluated by the use of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Also, the distribution of the Nano-powder particles was investigated by the elemental analysis. In the second stage, by the use of X-ray diffraction analysis, the position of the materials used in the coating was drawn and investigated. In the third stage, in order to evaluate the coating’s corrosion behavior due to the addition of nanoparticles to the hydroxyapatite and compare it with the non-coated sample, the electrochemical analyses in the form of chemical polarization were investigated and analyzed with drawing the related charts. Finally, in the fourth stage, the antibacterial tests on the Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus bacteria on the coating were conducted and compared to the uncoated alloy samples. The corrosion test results indicated that the use of nano-composite coating leads to the increase in corrosion resistance of the surface. The antibacterial tests results demonstareted that the use of nano-composite coating effectively decreases the bacteria growth on the surface.


Main Subjects

1.     Hamaker, H. C., “Formation of a deposit by electrophoresis”, Transactions of the Faraday Society, Vol. 35, (1940), 279-287. https://doi.org/10.1039/TF9403500279
2.     Diba, M., Fam, D. W. H., Boccaccini, A. R., Shaffer, M. S. P., “Electrophoretic deposition of graphene-related materials: A review of the fundamentals”, Progress in Materials Science, Vol. 82, (2016),  83-117.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2016.03.002
3.     Sarkar, P., Nicholson, P. S., “Electrophoretic deposition (EPD): mechanisms, kinetics, and application to ceramics”, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 79, No. 8, (1996), 1987-2002. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1151-2916.1996.tb08929.x
4.     Zhitomirsky, I., Gal-Or, L., “Electrophoretic deposition of hydroxyapatite”, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, Vol. 8, No. 4, (1997), 213-219. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018587623231
5.     Vandeperre, L., Van der Biest, O., Clegg, W. J., “Silicon carbide laminates with carbon interlayers by electrophoretic deposition”, In Fuentes, M., Martínez-Esnaola, J. M., Daniel, A.M., (eds.), Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 127-131, Trans Tech Publications Ltd., Switzerland, (1997), 567-574. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/kem.127-131.567
6.     Li, M., Liu, Q., Jia, Z., Xu, X., Cheng, Y., Zheng, Y., Xi, T., Wei, S., “Graphene oxide/hydroxyapatite composite coatings fabricated by electrophoretic nanotechnology for biological applications”, Carbon, Vol. 67, (2014), 185-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.09.080
7.     Hu, W., Peng, C., Luo, W., Lv, M., Li, X., Li, D., Huang, Q., Fan, C., “Graphene-based antibacterial paper”, ACS Nano, Vol. 4, No. 7, 4317-4323. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn101097v
8.     Saberi, F., Boroujeny, B. S., Doostmohamdi, A., Baboukani, A. R., Asadikiya, M., “Electrophoretic deposition kinetics and properties of ZrO2 nano coatings”, Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 213, (2018), 444-454. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2018.04.050
9.     Poorraeisi, M., Afshar, A., “The study of electrodeposition of hydroxyapatite-ZrO2-TiO2 nanocomposite coatings on 316 stainless steel”, Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 339, (2018), 199-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2018.02.030
10.   Shi, Y. Y., Li, M., Liu, Q., Jia, Z. J., Xu, X. C., Cheng, Y., Zheng, Y. F., “Electrophoretic deposition of graphene oxide reinforced chitosan–hydroxyapatite nanocomposite coatings on Ti substrate”, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 3, (2016), 48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10856-015-5634-9
11.   Hadidi, M., Bigham, A., Saebnoori, E., Hassanzadeh-Tabrizi, S. A., Rahmati, S., Alizadeh, Z. M., Nasirian, V., Rafienia, M., “Electrophoretic-deposited hydroxyapatite-copper nanocomposite as an antibacterial coating for biomedical applications”, Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 321, (2017), 171-179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2017.04.055
12.   Janković, A., Eraković, S., Mitrić, M., Matić, I. Z., Juranić, Z. D., Tsui, G. C., Tang, C. Y., Mišković-Stanković, V., Rhee, K. Y.,  Park, S. J., “Bioactive hydroxyapatite/graphene composite coating and its corrosion stability in simulated body fluid”, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 624, (2015), 148-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2014.11.078