Enhancing the bioactivity of a calcium phosphate glass-ceramic with controlled heat treatment


1 Department of Physics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan

2 Department of Physics, Univeristy of Sistan and Baluchestan

3 Department of Physics, Imam Hossein University


In this paper synthesis and characterization of a bioactive calcium phosphate glass-ceramic is presented, synthesized using a facile method. The glass-ceramic samples are synthesized with heat treating the parent glass at appropriate temperatures, where different calcium phosphate crystalline phases are grown in the parent glass samples during the heat treatment. The amounts of elements and oxides in the parent glass are determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Using differential scanning calorimetry method glass transition temperature of the parent glass, and the temperature range for heat treatments are determined. Several calcium phosphate crystalline phases are identified in the glass-ceramic samples. With the increase of heat treatment temperature from 540 ℃ to 560 ℃, β-Ca3(PO4)2 and β-Ca2P2O7 crystalline phases become the dominant crystalline phases among the other crystalline phases in the glass-ceramic samples. Bioactivity of the glass-ceramic samples are investigated by immersing the samples in Ringer's solution for 7, 21 and 28 days. By analyzing X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier transform infrared spectra, and scanning electron microscopy images of the samples immersed in Ringer's solution, the formation of hydroxyapatite on the samples confirmed. The results show that the samples with β-Ca3(PO4)2 and β-Ca2P2O7 crystalline phases are more bioactive than the others.


Main Subjects

1. Marghussian, V., "Nano-Glass Ceramics: Processing, Properties and Applications", Elsevier, Inc.: Oxford, (2015).
2. Höland, W., "Glass-ceramics", in Bio-Glasses: an Introduction, Jones, J.R., Clare, A.G., Eds., John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Chichester, (2012).
3. Donald, I.W., "Preparation, properties, and chemistry of glass and glass-ceramic-to-metal seals and coating", Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 28, (1993), 2841-2886.
4. Rawlings, R.D., Wu, J.P. and Boccaccini, A.R., "Glassceramics: their production from wastes- a review", Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 41, (2006), 733-761.
5. Höland, W. and Beall, G.H., "Glass-Ceramic Technology", 2nd ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, (2012).
6. Kokubo, T., Shigematsu, M., Nagashima, Y., Tashiro, M., Nakamura, T., Yamamuro, T. and Higashi, S., "Apatite- and  wollastonite-containing glass-ceramics for prosthetic applications", Bulletin of the Institute for Chemical Research, Vol. 60, (1982), 260-268.
7. Hench, L.L., Splinter, R.J., Allen, W.C. and Greenlee, T.K., "Bonding mechanisms at the interface of ceramic prosthetic materials", Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Vol. 5, (1971), 117-141.
8. Best, S.M., Porter, A.E., Thian, E.S. and Huang, J., "Bioceramics: past, present and for the future", Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Vol. 28, (2008), 1319-1327.
9. Franks, K., Abrahams, I. and Knowles, J.C., "Development of soluble glasses for biomedical use part I: in vitro solubility measurement", Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, Vol. 11, (2000), 609-614.
10. Nery, E.B., Lynch, K.L., Hirthe, W.M. and Mueller, K.H., "Bioceramic implants in surgically produced infrabony defects", Journal of Periodontology, Vol. 46, (1975), 328-347. 11. Ha, N.R., Yang, Z.X., Hwang, K.H., Kim, T.S. and Lee, J.K.,. "Improvement of the stability of hydroxyapatite through glass ceramic reinforcement", Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Vol. 10, (2010), 3459-3462.
12. Kasuga, T., Terada, M., Nogami, M. and Niinomi, M., "Machinable calcium pyrophosphate glass-ceramics", Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 16, (2001), 876-880.
13. Karmakar, B., "Fundamentals of glass and glass nanocomposites", in Glass Nanocomposites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications, armakar, B., Rademann, K., Stepanov, A., Eds., Elsevier Inc., Cambridge, (2016).
14. Pavia, D.L., Lampman, G.M., Kriz, G.S. and Vyvyan, J.R., "Introduction to Spectroscopy", 5th ed., Cengage Learning: Stamford, (2015).
15. Silverstein, R.M., Webster, F.X., Kiemle, D.J. and Bryce, D.L., "Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds", 8th ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, (2015).
16. Radev, L., Hristov, V., Michailova, I., Fernandes, M.H.V. and Salvado, I.M.M., "In vitro bioactivity of biphasic calcium phosphate silicate glass-ceramic in CaO-SiO2-P2O5 system", Processing and Application of Ceramics, Vol. 4, (2010), 15-24.
17. Chetty, A.S., Wepener, I., Marei, M.K., Kamary, Y.E. and Moussa, R.M., "Synthesis, properties, and applications of hydroxyapatite", in Hydroxyapatite: Synthesis, Properties and Applications, Gshalaev, V.S., Demirchan, A.C., Eds., Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Hauppauge, (2012).
18. Ooi, C.Y., Hamdi, M. and Ramesh, S., "Properties of hydroxyapatite produced by annealing of bovine bone", Ceramics International, Vol. 33, (2007), 1171-1177.
19. Zhang, Y., Santos, J.D., "Crystallization and microstructure analysis of calcium phosphate-based glass ceramics for biomedical applications", Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Vol. 272, (2000), 14-21.
20. Dobradi, A., Enisz-Bodogh, M., Kovacs, K., Korim, T., "Biodegradation of bioactive glass ceramic containing natural calcium phosphates ", Ceramics International, Vol. 42, (2016), 3706-3714.