Cathodic Electrodeposition and Characterization of YAG Nanostructure: Effect Current Density on the Morphology


1 Department of Semiconductors, Materials and Energy Research Center, P .O. Box 14155-4777 Tehran, Iran

2 School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


YAG (Yttrium Aluminum Garnet) was successfully prepared through cathodic electrodeposition process by applying different current densities to the mixture of YCl3 and AlCl3 solution (water/ethanol 1:1 volume ratio). Hydroxide precursors were cathodically grown on the cathode surface (at different current densities) and then the obtained hydroxide powder was heat-treated at 1100 °C for 2 h. The oxide products were characterized by XRD, FTIR, DSC-TGA, SEM and EDAX techniques. The effect of applied current density on the morphology and particle size of YAG nanostructures were investigated through SEM images. Experimental results showed that the cathodic electrodeposition followed by heat-treatment can be used as a facile method for preparation of YAG nanostructures with different morphologies.


Main Subjects

1. Yang, H. K., Jeong, J. H. ,″ Synthesis, crystal growth, and photoluminescence properties of YAG:Eu3+ phosphor by highenergy ball milling and solid state reaction″ Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 114, (2010), 226–230.

2. Qin, H., Jiang, J., Jiang,, H., Sang, Y., Sun, D., Zhang, X., Wang, J., Liu, H., ″ Effect of composition deviation on the microstructure and luminescence properties of Nd:YAG ceramics″, CrystEngComm, Vol. 16, ( 2014) , 10856-10862.

3. Grabis, J., Jankovič, D., Šteins, I., Patmalnieks, A., ″Preparation of YAG Nanoparticles and their Characteristics″, Materials Science Forum, Vol.636-637, (2010), 697-702.

4. Xianxue, L., Wenju, W., Nanostructured yttrium aluminum garnet powders synthesized by co-precipitation method using tetraethylenepentamine, JOURNAL OF RARE EARTHS, Vol.27, (2009), 967-970.

5. K. Mishra, S. K. Singh, A. K. Singh, M. Rai, B. K. Gupta S. B. Rai, ″New Perspective in Garnet Phosphor: Low Temperature Synthesis, Nanostructures, and Observation of Multimodal Luminescence″ Inorganic chemistry, Vol. 53, (2014), 9561–9569.

6. E. J. Nassar, P. F. S.Pereira, E. C. O. Nassor,L. R. Avila, K. J. Ciuffi, P. S. Calefi, ″Nonhydrolytic sol-gel synthesis and characterization of YAG″, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 42, (2007), 2244–2249.

7. Ruan, S. K., Zhou, J. G., Zhong, A. M., Duan, J. F., Yang, X. B., Su, M. Z., ″Synthesis of Y3Al5O12:Eu3+ phosphor by sol-gel method and its luminescence behavior″, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 275-277, (1998), 72-75.

8. Jiao, H., Ma, Q., He, L., Liu, Z., Wu, Q., ″Effects of cathodic current density and temperature on morphology and microstructure of iridium coating prepared by electrodeposition in molten salt under the air atmosphere″, Powder Technology, Vol.198,( 2010), 229–232.

9. Marchal, J., John, T., Baranwal, R., Hinklin,T., Laine,, R. M., ″Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Nanopowders Produced by Liquid- Feed Flame Spray Pyrolysis (LF-FSP) of Metalloorganic Precursors″, CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS, Vol. 16, (2004) , 822-831.

10. Hinklin, T., Toury, B., Gervais,C., Babonneau, F., Gislason, J. J., Morton, R. W., Laine, R. M., ″Liquid-Feed Flame Spray Pyrolysis of Metalloorganic and Inorganic Alumina Sources in the Production of Nanoalumina Powders″, CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS, Vol.16,(2004), 21-30.

11. Song, Z., Liao, J., Ding, X., Liu, X., Liu, Q., ″Synthesis of YAG phosphor particles with excellent morphology by solid state reaction″, Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 365, (2013), 24–28.

12. Li, X., Liu, H., Wang, J.Y., Cui, H.M., Han, F., Zhang, X.D., Boughton, R.I. , ″Rapid synthesis of YAG nano-sized powders by a novel method″,Materials Letters, Vol. 58, (2004) , 2377–2380.

13. Xu, M. M., Zhang, Z. J. , Zhu, J. J. , Zhao, J. T. , Chen, X. Y. , ″Solvothermal Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Monodispersed Crystallites with Well- Developed Faces″, THE JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C, Vol. 118, (2014), 27000-27009.

14. Fadlalla, H.M.H., Tang, C.C., Elssfah, E.M. , Shi, F. ″Synthesis and characterization of single crystalline YAG:Eu nano-sized powder by sol–gel method″,Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol.109, (2008), 436–439.

15. Saladino, M.L., Caponetti, E., ″Co-precipitation synthesis of Nd:YAG nanopowders II: The effect of Nd dopant addition on luminescence properties″, Optical Materials, Vol.32, (2009), 89– 93.

16. Gong, H., Tang, D. Y., Huang, H. M., Han, D., Sun, T., Zhang, J. X., Qin, p., Ma, J. ″Crystallization kinetics and characterization of nanosized Nd:YAG by a modified sol–gel combustion process″, Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 362, (2013), 52-57.

17. Aghazadeh, M., Hosseinifard, M., ″Electrochemical preparation of ZrO2 nanopowder: Impact of the pulse current on the crystal structure, composition  and morphology″, Ceramics International, Vol. 39, (2013), 4427-4435.

18. Aghazadeh, M., MalekBarmi, A. A., Hosseinifard, M., ″Nanoparticulates Zr(OH)4 and ZrO2 prepared by low-temperature cathodic electrodeposition″ Materials Letters, Vol.73, (2012), 28- 31.

19. M. Aghazadeh, M. Hosseinifard, M. H. Peyrovi, and B. Sabour., ″Electrochemical preparation and characterization of brain-like nanostructures of Y2O3″,Journal of Rare Earths, Vol. 31, (2013), 281-288.

20. Zhou, W. J., Zhao, D. D., Xu, M. W., Xu, C. L., Li, H. L ., ″Effects of the electrodeposition potential and temperature on the electrochemical capacitance behavior of ordered mesoporous cobalt hydroxide films″, Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 53, (2008), 7210–7219.

21. Hsua, C. T., Yenb, S. K, ″Electrochemical Synthesis of Thin Film YAG on Inconel Substrate″, Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, Vol. 9, (2006), D9-D12.

22. Hosseinifard, M., Badiei, A., Ahmadi, K., ″Synthesis and characterization of yttrium aluminum garnet nanostructures by cathodic electrodeposition method″, Advanced Powder Technology, Vol. 28, (2017), 411-418.

23. Zhu, L., Bai, S., Zhang, H., Ye, Y., ″Effects of cathodic current density and temperature on morphology and microstructure of iridium coating prepared by electrodeposition in molten salt under the air atmosphere″, Applied Surface Science, Vol. 265, (2013), 537– 545.

24. H. Sano, H. Sakaebe, H. Senoh, and H. Matsumoto, ″Effect of Current Density on Morphology of Lithium Electrodeposited in Ionic Liquid-Based Electrolytes″, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 16, (2014), A1236-A1240.

25. Aghazadeh, M., MalekBarmi, A. A., Shiri, H.M., ″Cathodic Electrodeposition and Characterizationof Nanostructured Y2O3 from Chloride Solution Part I:Effect of Current Density″, Russian Journal of Electrochemistry, Vol.49, (2013), 344-353.

26. F. Khosrowpour, M. Aghazadeh, B. Arhamib, ″Facile synthesis of vertically aligned one-dimensional (1D) La (OH)3 and La2O3 nanorods by pulse current deposition, electrochem″, Solid-State Letters, Vol. 160, (2013), D150-D155.

27. H. M. Shiri, A. Ehsani, J. S. Shayeh, “Synthesis and highly efficient supercapacitor behavior of a novel poly pyrrole/ceramic oxide nanocomposite film”, Royal Society of Chemistry Adv., Vol. 5, (2015), 91062-91068.