Identification of Intermediate Compound in Photodegradation of 1-Naphthol by WO3-rGO Nanocomposites

Document Type: Original Research Article


1 Department of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj, Iran

2 Nano-Techology and Advanced Materials, Material and Energy Research Center (MERC)

3 Department of Energy, Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj, Iran


In this report, the degradation of 1-Naphthol was studied under xenon irradiation for 2 h using WO3-rGO nanocomposite as photocatalyst. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated nanocomposite formation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique which was utilized to analyze the degradation products, confirmed the formation of salicylic acid as an intermediate compound.


Main Subjects


  1. Dong, P., Cui, E., Hou, G., Guan, R., Zhang, Q., “Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Ag3PO4/TiOF2 composites with enhanced stability”, Materials Letters, Vol. 143, (2015), 20-23.
  2. Paula, A., Lopez, E., Marci, G., Palmisano, L., “A survey of photocatalytic materials for environmental remediation”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 2011-2012, (2012), 3-9.
  3. Mohamed, R.M., McKinney, D.L., Sigmund, W.M,,”Enhanced nanocatalysts”, Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 73, (2012), 1-13.
  4. Karunakaran, Ch., Narayanan, S., Gomathisankar, P.,”Photocatalytic degradation of 1-naphthol by oxide ceramics with bacterial disinfection” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 181, No. 3, (2010), 708-715.
  5. Thangavel, S., Elayaperumal, M., Venugopal, G., “Synthesis and properties of Tungsten oxide and reduced graphene nanocomposite” Materials Express. Vol. 2, No. 4, (2012), 327-334.
  6. Marlinda, A. R., Huang, N. M., Muhamed, M. R., An’amet, M. N., Chang, B. Y. S., Yusoff ,N., Harrison, I., Lim, H.N., Chin, Ch., Vijay Kumar, S., “Highly efficient preparation of ZnO nanorods decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites”, Materials Letters, Vol. 80, (2012), 9-12.
  7. Bamwenda, R., Arakawa, H., “The visible light induced photocatalytic activity of Tungsten trioxide powder” Applied Catalysis A: General. Vol. 210, No. 1, (2001), 181-191.
  8. An, X., Yu, C., Wa Y., Hu, Y., Yu, X., Zhang, “G,WO3 nanorods/graphene nanocomposites for high-efficiency visible-light-driven photocatalysis and NO2 gas sensing”, Journal of Materials Chemistry. Vol. 22, No. 17, (2012), 8525-8531.
  9. Zhou, M., Yan, J., Cui, P,”Synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic performance of WO3nanorods@ graphene nanocomposites”, Materials Letters, Vol. 89, (2012), 258-261.
  10. Mrozik, A., Piotrowska-Seget, Z., Labuzek, S., “Bacterial degradation and bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons”, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, Vol. 12, No. 1, (2003), 15-25.
  11. Hajishafiee, M.H., Sangpour, P., Tabrizi, N.S., “Facile synthesis and photocatalytic performance of WO3-rGO nanocomposite for degradation of 1-naphthol” Nano. Vol. 10, NO. 5, (2015), 1550072-1550080.
  12. Farhadian, M., Sangpour, P., Hossainzadeh, G., “Preparation and photocatalytic activity of WO3-MWCNT nanocomposite for degradation of naphthalene under visible light irradiation”, Royal Society of Chemistry Advances. Vol. 6, NO. 45, (2016), 39063-39073.
  13. Gao, Zh., Liu, N., Wu, D., Tao, W., Xu, F., Jiang, K., “Graphene–CdS composite, synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity”, Applied Surface Science,Vol. 258, No. 7, (2012),2473-2478.
  14. Zhu, Sh., Liu, X., Chen, Zh., Liu, Ch., Feng, Ch., Gu, J., Liu, Q., Zhang, D., ”Synthesis of Cu-doped WO3 materials with photonic structures for high performance sensors”, Journal of Materials Chemistry. Vol. 20, No. 41, (2010), 9126-9132.
  15. Guo, J., Li, Y., Zhu, Sh., Chen, Zh., Liu, Q., Zhang, D., Moon, W., Min, song. D., “Synthesis of WO3@Graphene composite for enhanced photocatalytic oxygen evolution from water”, Royal Society of Chemistry Advances, Vol. 2, No. 4, (2012), 1356-1363.
  16. Qourzal, S., Barka, N., Tamimi, M., Assabbane, A., Ichou, A., “Photodegradation of 2-Naphthol in water by artificial light illumination using TiO2 photocatalysts: Identification of intermediates and the reaction pathway”, Applied Catalysis A: General, Vol. 334, No. 1, (2008),386-393.
  17. Trinh, D., Le, S., Channei. D., Khanitchaidecha, W., Nakaruk, A.,  “Investigation of intermediate compounds of phenol in photocatalysis process”, International Journal of Chemical Engineering and application. Vol. 7, No. 4, (2016), 273-276.
  18. Wang, H., Dong. X., Cui. W., Li, J., Sun, Y., Zhou, Y., Huang, H., Zhang, Y., Dong, F.,  “High surface energy enables efficient and stable photocatalytic toluene degradation via the suppression of intermediate byproducts”, Catalysis Science and Technology  Vol. 9, No. 11, (2019), 2952-2959.
  19. Tao, X., Q, Lu. G., N, Dang. Zh., Yang, Ch., Yi, X.,  “A phenanthrene-degrading strain Sphingomonas sp. GY2B isolated from contaminated soils” Process Biochemistry. Vol. 42, No. 3,  (2007), 401-408.
  20. Song, Sh., Xu, L., He, Zh., Ying, H., Chen, J., Xiao, X., Yan, B., “Photocatalytic degradation of C. I. direct red 23 in aqueous solutions under UV irradiation using SrTiO3/CeO2 composite as the catalyst”, Journal of Hazardous Materials. Vol. 152, No. 3, (2008),1301-1308.